A tubal pregnancy is reported with code O00.1. c. Category O12 reports gestational edema and proteinuria with hypertension Abnormal placenta formation in the fourth week of pregnancy is reported with code _____. Marissa is in the 4th month of her first pregnancy. Although she has no major health problems, her pre-pregnancy BMI was 32.2. Based on this information, she has a high risk of developing ________ urethra Question 16 1 out of 1 points Abnormal placenta formation in the fourth week of pregnancy is reported with code _____ Selected Answer: d. O43.101, Z3A.01 Answers: a. O43.103, Z3A.00 b
Abnormal placenta formation in the 4th week of pregnancy is reported with code _____ A) O43.102 B) O43.103 C) O43.101 D) O43.109 Points Earned: 4.0/4.0 Correct Answer(s): C 20. Congenital malformation of parathyroid gland is reported with code _____ Abnormal placenta formation in the 4th week of pregnancy is reported with code _____ Points Earned: 4.0/4. 0 Correct Answer(s): C O80 P90 Share this link with a friend: Copied Abnormal placenta formation in the 4th week of pregnancy is reported with code O43.101, Z3A.01 In Table 2E0 the correct value for a substance of a destructive agent i
. Abnormal placenta formation in the 4th week of pregnancy is reported with code. O43.101, Z3A.01 Helen was admitted during her 5th week of pregnancy due to hyperemesis causing dehydration. She was discharged. A number of abnormalities can affect the umbilical cord. The cord may be too long or too short. It may connect improperly to the placenta or become knotted or compressed. Cord abnormalities can lead to problems during pregnancy or during labor and delivery. In some cases, cord abnormalities are discovered before delivery during an ultrasound The placenta is considered an important organ that evolves with the implantation of the blastocyst throughout the pregnancy. The placenta has an essential role in functions such as nutrition, excretion, and immunologic and endocrine function. The normal placenta is a round- or oval-shaped organ that attaches to the uterine wall and has roughly 22 cm in diameter and a thickness of about 2-2.5. ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code O36.5190 [convert to ICD-9-CM] Maternal care for known or suspected placental insufficiency, unspecified trimester, not applicable or unspecified. Matern care for known or susp placntl insuff, unsp tri, unsp; Placental insufficiency affecting management of mother; Placental insufficiency in pregnancy Abnormal growth in uterus with sepsis; Ectopic pregnancy (not in uterus) with sepsis; Ectopic pregnancy with sepsis; Sepsis following molar pregnancy; septic or septicopyemic embolism following ectopic and molar pregnancy (O08.2); code (B95-B97), to identify infectious agen
.8 [convert to ICD-9-CM] Other abnormal involuntary movements. Abnormal synkinesis of left lower eyelid; Abnormal synkinesis of left upper eyelid; Abnormal synkinesis of right lower eyelid; Abnormal synkinesis of right upper eyelid; Athetosis; Clonus; Synkinesis, eyelid O00-O9A Pregnancy, childbirth and the When a type 2 excludes note appears under a code it is acceptable to use both the code Deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of the placenta. Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the placenta. Codes. O43 Placental disorders The management of this condition depends on the amount of bleeding, whether the bleeding stops, how far along your pregnancy is, the position of the placenta, and your and your baby's health. If placenta previa persists late in the third trimester, your health care provider will recommend a C-section. Placenta accreta
. Learn about common disorders of the placenta, including. 2021 ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code O43.101 Malformation of placenta, unspecified, first trimester 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Billable/Specific Code Maternity Dx (12-55 years) 1st Trimester (< 14 weeks) O43.101 is a billable/specific ICD-10-CM code that can be used to indicate a diagnosis for reimbursement purposes
placenta accreta - The abnormal placental adherence, either in whole or in part of the placenta with absence of decidua basalis, leading to retention as an after-birth to the underlying uterine wall. The incidence of placenta accreta also significantly increases in women with previous cesarean section compared to those without a prior surgical. In a complete molar pregnancy, the placental tissue is abnormal and swollen and appears to form fluid-filled cysts. There's also no formation of fetal tissue. In a partial molar pregnancy, there may be normal placental tissue along with abnormally forming placental tissue O43.109 is a billable diagnosis code used to specify a medical diagnosis of malformation of placenta, unspecified, unspecified trimester. The code O43.109 is valid during the fiscal year 2021 from October 01, 2020 through September 30, 2021 for the submission of HIPAA-covered transactions Fetal development six weeks after conception. By the end of the eighth week of pregnancy — six weeks after conception — your baby might be about 1/2 inch (11 to 14 millimeters) long. Eight weeks into your pregnancy, or six weeks after conception, your baby's lower limb buds take on the shape of paddles. Fingers have begun to form
Gembruch et al. reported the results of ultrasound screening in 15 fetuses at 11 weeks, 30 at 12 weeks, 51 at 13 weeks and 11 at 14 weeks 60. There were ten fetuses with cardiac anomalies and, in nine of these, the diagnosis was correctly made at the 11-14-week scan; in one case, complete atrioventricular septal defect with double- outlet. Development of placenta contd• These two i.e., chorion frondosum and the decidua basalis form the discrete placenta. It begins at 6th week and is completed by 12th week.• Until the end of 16th week, the placenta grows both in thickness and circumference10/1/2012 9:41 AM 7 8 Pre-eclampsia is a common disorder that particularly affects first pregnancies. The clinical presentation is highly variable but hypertension and proteinuria are usually seen. These systemic signs arise from soluble factors released from the placenta as a result of a response to stress of syncytiotrophoblast. There are two sub-types: early and late onset pre-eclampsia, with others almost.
. 1 PLACENTA • This is a fetomaternal organ. • It has two components: - Fetal part - develops from the chorionic sac ( chorion frondosum ) - Maternal part - derived from the endometrium ( functional layer - decidua basalis ) • The placenta and the umbilical cord are a transport system for substances between the mother and the fetus.( vessels in umbilical cord. The placental membranes is a term often used to describe the all the fetal components of the placenta (Greek, plakuos = flat cake).. This page will not cover the whole placenta, just the development of the extra-embryonic membranes that form the extra-embryonic coeloms (cavities or spaces); amnionic sac, chorionic sac, yolk sac and allantois The placenta, that vital organ to which we were all once attached, takes on great significance — but usually only when pregnancy fails. In the white light of a hospital labor and delivery floor.
These notes cover abnormalities that can occur during development (abnormal development) often described as congenital abnormalities or birth defects.There are many different ways that developmental abnormalities can occur the 3 major types are Genetic (inherited), Environmental (maternal) and Idiopathic (unknown, not determined) derived abnormalities .5 During pregnancy, reference ranges for reported values.6 Physicians should. Hyperemesis gravidarum, like nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, usually occurs before the 20th week of pregnancy often between the fourth and tenth week. In many HG patients, symptoms resolve before 20 weeks. However, cases have been reported in which symptoms persisted after 20 weeks and as many as 22% of cases may have symptoms that last until. Clefts of the lip and palate affect approximately 1.7 in 1000 live births, with lifelong effects on speech and hearing. 19 Development of the lip and palate require a highly coordinated series of events that are completed by the 5 th or 6 th week for closure of the lip and the 8 th or 9 th week for closure of the palate. 20,21 Typically, the. Screening for fetal chromosomal abnormalities is an essential part of antenatal care. Historically, maternal age was the determinant of risk. Women older than 35 years at the time of delivery were.
Pilonidal fistula with abscess is reported with code? C-O14.03, Z3A.38. Mild pre-eclampsia in the 38th week of pregnancy is reported with codes? C-Category O12 reports gestational edema and proteinuria with hypertension. Which of the following is false? B-L50.6 Coding for Postpartum Services (The Fourth Trimester) ACOG has received many requests for coding recommendations in response to the publication of the Committee Opinion 736: Optimizing Postpartum Care.This document provides clinical and educational guidelines and other resources to improve care for women and infants during the postpartum period Women with uterine synechiae were significantly more likely to experience pregnancy complications. They were more than threefold more likely to have placental abruption (2.1% compared with 0.6%, adjusted OR 3.25, 95% CI 1.43-7.36) and more than twofold more likely to have preterm PROM (5.5% compared with 2.3%, adjusted OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.51. The 12-week pregnancy scan may be your first scan to establish the foetal growth and development. However, this scan also helps your doctor to assess any foetal abnormality. In case your baby is detected with any defect or abnormality, then you may be referred to a foetal medicine consultant The placenta forms the functional interface between the mother and fetus that is essential for fetal development and growth during pregnancy. It is responsible for secreting a plethora of.
Differences in oxygen tension in abnormal placental beds have been invoked as a cause of abnormal placental invasion. It has been reported that preferential implantation of embryos into a relatively avascular scar tissue occurs because of decreased oxygen tension. 9 Deeper invasion in the setting of placenta increta and percreta might result. The study with the lowest detection rate reported the highest prevalence of congenital abnormalities (4.6%) and included minor abnormalities (such as small atrial septal defect, clinodactyly, pyelectasis) in the calculation of fetal malformations that were not diagnosed at 11-14-week US (, 34)
Key Statistics for the United States—Maternal Drinking. About 20 to 30 percent of women have reported drinking at some point during pregnancy—most typically during the first trimester. 12 More than 8 percent of women have reported binge drinking at some time during pregnancy—most typically during the first trimester. 12 Almost 10 percent of pregnant women reported drinking alcohol in the. Placental lake. Placental (venous) lakes refer to a phenomenon of formation of hypoechoic cystic spaces centrally within the placenta. Finding placental lakes during a second trimester ultrasound scan is not associated with any uteroplacental complication or with an adverse pregnancy outcome. They can, however, be abnormal if very diffuse or if. HELLP syndrome is a complication of pregnancy characterized by hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and a low platelet count. It usually begins during the last three months of pregnancy or shortly after childbirth. Symptoms may include feeling tired, retaining fluid, headache, nausea, upper right abdominal pain, blurry vision, nosebleeds, and seizures..
Version 1.1, 8/25/2016 Zika Pregnancy outcome reporting of brain abnormalities and other adverse outcomes The following box details the inclusion criteria for brain abnormalities and other adverse outcomes potentially related to Zika virus infection during pregnancy You have reached your second trimester! You're now one-third of the way through your pregnancy. At 14 weeks pregnant, you might be feeling better as early pregnancy symptoms such as nausea and fatigue begin to fade. Many expectant parents consider this in-the-middle trimester to be the easiest and most comfortable Risk factors. An important risk factor for placenta accreta is placenta previa in the presence of a uterine scar. Placenta previa is an independent risk factor for placenta accreta. Additional reported risk factors for placenta accreta include maternal age and multiparity, other prior uterine surgery, prior uterine curettage, uterine irradiation, endometrial ablation, Asherman syndrome. The second trimester was defined as being between weeks 12 and 21 of pregnancy. week, it was reported that Middleton is receiving trimester could indicate abnormal placenta formation, the.
(8) Intrauterine pregnancy means a pregnancy in which the fetus is attached to the placenta within the uterus of the pregnant woman. (9) Medical emergency has the same meaning as in section 2919.16 of the Revised Code. (10) Physician has the same meaning as in section 2305.113 of the Revised Code Every day of your pregnancy comes with new surprises. Enter your due date and let WebMD's Pregnancy Calendar help you know what to expect each day
Asherman syndrome occurs primarily after a dilation and curettage performed for an elective termination of pregnancy, a missed or incomplete miscarriage, or to treat a retained placenta after delivery. It may occur with or without hemorrhage after delivery or elective termination of pregnancy Hypertension is the most common medical problem encountered during pregnancy, complicating 2-3% of pregnancies. Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy are classified into 4 categories, as recommended by the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy: Chronic hypertension Preeclampsia-ecla.. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. Symptoms can include an abnormal appearance, short height, low body weight, small head size, poor coordination, behaviorial problems, learning difficulties and problems with hearing or sight. Those affected are more likely to have trouble in school, legal. Complications of pregnancy are health problems that are related to pregnancy.Complications that occur primarily during childbirth are termed obstetric labor complications, and problems that occur primarily after childbirth are termed puerperal disorders.Severe complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium are present in 1.6% of mothers in the US, and in 1.5% of mothers in Canada
By 10 weeks of pregnancy, your healthcare provider may talk to you about this elective test as an option to help identify if your baby is at risk for genetic abnormalities, such as chromosomal. In the middle of the fourth week of gestation, the sinus venosus receives blood from the right and left sinus horns [6, 7].Each sinus horn receives blood from three important veins: the vitelline or omphalomesenteric vein, the umbilical vein, and the common cardinal vein [6, 7].During the fourth and fifth weeks of development, the sinus shifts to the right and the left sinus horn is rapidly. Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disease that occurs during pregnancy. This disease encompasses 2% to 8% of pregnancy-related complications, greater than 50,000 maternal deaths, and over 500,000 fetal deaths worldwide. Early diagnosis and prompt management are essential to prevent morbidity and mortality associated with preeclampsia
If pregnancy does not occur, progesterone levels surge and endometrial breakdown follows, leading to menstruation (, 2). The normal premenopausal endometrial thickness is reported to be 2-4 mm after menses with an echogenic appearance. At ovulation, the endometrium appears layered and is 10-14 mm thick Kiyotaka Toshimori, Edward M. Eddy, in Knobil and Neill's Physiology of Reproduction (Fourth Edition), 2015. Abnormal Sperm Heads. Teratozoospermia is a condition in which human spermatozoa have abnormal morphology, including abnormally shaped heads. 234 A widely accepted notion is that a well-conserved organization of sperm transcripts in the healthy male originates from a well-orchestrated. Congenital anomalies are important causes of infant and childhood deaths, chronic illness and disability. Through the resolution on birth defects of the Sixty-third World Health Assembly (2010), Member States agreed to promote primary prevention and improve the health of children with congenital anomalies by
A common symptom of placenta previa is bright red, sudden, profuse, and painless vaginal bleeding, which usually occurs after the 28th week of pregnancy. Doctors usually use an ultrasound to. Irregular contractions 5 to 20 minutes apart. Dull pain in the back. Severe cramps. Difficulty in breathing. Fullness and pressure in the pelvic region. Pain radiating from the back to the front. First-time mothers might have several hours of early labor contractions without any cervical dilation Early pregnancy loss is estimated to occur in 10% of all clinically recognized pregnancies, with about 80% occurring in the first trimester.  The term abortion is commonly used to mean all forms of early pregnancy loss; however, due to the polarizing social stigma assigned to this term, the term miscarriage is used here to indicate all forms of spontaneous early pregnancy loss or. The definition of minor placenta previa varied with two studies31 36 using the placental edge being <2 cm from the internal os, two studies using <3 cm22 23, 23 and one study using <3 cm or <5 cm if associated with abnormal fetal presentation.21 The gestational age at confirmation of the prenatal diagnosis of placenta previa was reported in six.
The coexistence of these malformations suggested interference with embryologic development in the fourth week of fetal life. Hastings et al. (2009) reported 3 unrelated patients with the Mardini-Nyhan association. The first patient was found to have left lung agenesis and abnormal heart positioning at 20 weeks' gestation Preeclampsia is a serious disorder that may result in severe morbidity and mortality for mother and fetus, and it is thought that the placental dysfunction is important in the pathogenesis of. - Pregnancy ≥ 37W 0/7 - Suspected placental abruption - Pregnancy ≥ 34W 0/7 PLUS one of the following : * Labor or rupture of membranes * Fetal weight < 5th percentile * Oligohydramnios * Abnormal maternal or fetal test results 2. In all other cases, continue outpatient monitoring : - Maternal monitoring : 1-2 x/W * Blood pressure * Urine. Introduction and Background. Placenta accreta is defined as abnormal trophoblast invasion of part or all of the placenta into the myometrium of the uterine wall 1.Placenta accreta spectrum, formerly known as morbidly adherent placenta, refers to the range of pathologic adherence of the placenta, including placenta increta, placenta percreta, and placenta accreta
Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a prenatal test in which a sample of chorionic villi is removed from the placenta for testing. The sample can be taken through the cervix (transcervical) or the abdominal wall (transabdominal) Introduction. Pre-eclampsia, placental abruption, stillbirth and small for gestational age (SGA) birth are associated with abnormal placentation. 1-3 The trophoblast migration into the maternal deciduas and adjacent spiral arteries, which starts in early pregnancy and continues until about the 20th week of gestation, is restricted in these disorders. 4 Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) is. Placental Insufficiency . Other studies have raised concerns about the sufficiency of the placenta to provide an adequate nutritional environment for fetuses with short femur lengths. Because of that, short femur length is linked to other adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as fetuses that are small for gestational age, babies born with low birth. Preeclampsia is a complication of pregnancy that can happen to any woman, in any pregnancy. While preeclampsia most often occurs during a first pregnancy, it can occur in any pregnancy. Preeclampsia is diagnosed by persistent high blood pressure that develops for the first time after mid-pregnancy or right after delivery
Autoimmune disease may complicate pregnancy in many different ways adding to the immunologic challenges already faced by the mother. The maternal immune system must avoid rejecting a semi-allogeneic fetus, remain immunocompetent to fight infections, and clear abnormal cells (e.g. precancerous) that could be harmful to the mother or fetus Our week-by-week guide will help you through your 9 months of pregnancy so you can be a smarter, more confident, more prepared mom-to-be. Each week offers information about your body and the baby. By the second trimester of your pregnancy, you should be feeling better than you did in the first trimester. However, every pregnancy is different, and you still may experience some complications
Since the beginning of the pandemic, few papers describe the placenta's morphological and morphometrical features in SARS-CoV-2-positive pregnant women. Alterations, such as low placental weight, accelerated villous maturation, decidual vasculopathy, infarcts, thrombosis of fetal placental vessels, and chronic histiocytic intervillositis (CHI), have been described.ObjectiveTo analyze. Epidemiology. The estimated incidence is reported to range from 0.2-1.8% of second-trimester fetuses. Pathology. The cause of echogenic fetal bowel is uncertain, although it has been postulated that it is related to loss of water from meconium.Note that meconium can become echogenic in the third trimester
Abnormal presentation Presentation refers to the part of the baby that will appear first from the birth canal. In the weeks before your due date , the fetus usually drops lower in the uterus Hello ladies. I just had a growth scan today. I am 34 weeks and found out that the babys tummy was measuring smaller than the rest of the body. Stomach is measuring at 33 weeks. I am scheduled to have monitoring done. Doctor has mentioned induction at about 37 or 38 weeks if something is wrong. Has any.. We present a case of spontaneously conceived monochorionic triamniotic triplet pregnancy with no fetal anomaly or feto-fetal transfusion. The mother developed gestational diabetes at 20 weeks gestation, and at 20 weeks and 4 days gestation triplet 2 was found to have selective growth restriction and absent end diastolic flow. Although laser treatment and clamping of the umbilical cord of the. pregnancy than nonusers (mean gain by users 36.25 lbs., nonusers 32.0 lbs.). We compared marijuana users and nonusers on 12 indices of complications at delivery, namely: precipitous labor, prolonged labor, need for oxytocin, chorioamnionitis, abnormal presentation, fetal distress, meconiun staining, placental abruption, assiste Borderline to mild prenatally detected ventriculomegaly, without additional abnormalities or an abnormal karyotype, the majority of children have been to reported to have a normal development 10,11. Treatment and prognosis. The prognosis, as well as management, largely depend on the etiology and on the presence of associated abnormalities
The National Institutes of Health sponsored a multi-center prospective study (the First and Second Trimester Evaluation of Aneuploidy Risk or 'FASTER' trial) that compared first- and second-trimester non-invasive methods of screening for fetal aneuploidies with second trimester multiple marker maternal serum screening that is the current standard of care (NICHD, 2001) Teratogens are substances that may produce physical or functional defects in the human embryo or fetus after the pregnant woman is exposed to the substance. Alcohol and cocaine are examples of such substances. Exposure to the teratogen affects the fetus or embryo in a variety of ways, such as the duration of exposure, the amount of teratogenic. Chorioamniotic separation (CAS) is an intra-uterine event which can occur in pregnancy and is characterized by separation of placental (chorion) and fetal (amnion) membranes. Pathology The membranes are separated in early gestation, accounting.
As shown, hyperglycosylated hCG is the principal variant of hCG produced in early pregnancy. Hyperglycosylated hCG comprises an average of 87% of the total hCG produced in serum during the third week, 51% during the fourth week and 43% during the fifth week of gestation (Table (Table2). 2) Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone for the maternal recognition of pregnancy produced by trophoblast cells that are surrounding a growing embryo (syncytiotrophoblast initially), which eventually forms the placenta after implantation. The presence of hCG is detected in some pregnancy tests (HCG pregnancy strip tests). Some cancerous tumors produce this hormone; therefore, elevated.
Peter Twining, in Textbook of Fetal Abnormalities (Second Edition), 2007. Gestational sac, yolk sac and fetal pole. The gestational sac may be recognized as early as 4 weeks and 1 day from the last menstrual period and should always be seen after 4 weeks and 4 days. Its diameter is about 2 mm and increases in size to measure 5-6 mm at 5 weeks. 44 The mean gestational sac diameter then. The Fetal Medicine Foundation is a Registered Charity that aims to improve the health of pregnant women and their babies through research and training in fetal medicine. The Foundation, with the support of an international group of experts, has introduced an educational programme both for healthcare professionals and parents and a series of.
Development of the umbilical cord. The umbilical cord is formed when the body stalk and the ductus omphalo-entericus as well as the umbilical coelom are enveloped by the spreading amnion between the 4th and 8th week. Finally, when the membranes of the amniotic cavity come into contact with those of the chorionic cavity and the two extra. Pregnancy can be complicated, but you can make sure your ultrasound doesn't have to be. Rather than wonder what HD or EDD means, gain an understanding of common ultrasound abbreviations used during pregnancy. You'll also find out why ultrasound biometry is important and the different types of pregnancy ultrasounds available Henry Gray (1821-1865). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918. 11. Development of the Fetal Membranes and Placenta The Allantois (Figs. 25 to 28). —The allantois arises as a tubular diverticulum of the posterior part of the yolk-sac; when the hind-gut is developed the allantois is carried backward with it and then opens into the cloaca or terminal part of the hind-gut: it grows out into the body.
In terms of kidney hemodynamics, renal plasma flow elevates by 5%-70% , and can reach up to 85% in the second trimester .After conception, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) increases continuously and the increment can be up to 25% at the 4th week of gestation .It reaches a peak at 65% increase from the baseline at around the 13th week of gestation, The placenta is the pancake-shaped organ in the uterus that serves as the baby's lifeline for nutrition, oxygen and waste removal. It's usually one-sixth of the baby's weight and has a thickness that corresponds roughly to the baby's gestational age. A fetus that's 20 weeks along would be nurtured by a placenta about 20 millimeters thick
CPT code 76813 is used for the evaluation through measurement of fetal nuchal translucency as one of the components during screening for fetal aneuploidy. This ultrasound screening is performed between the tenth and fourteenth week of pregnancy. The screening provides an in depth examination of the fetus Background Advanced maternal age (AMA; ≥35 years) is an increasing trend and is reported to be associated with various pregnancy complications. Objective To determine the risk of stillbirth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in women of AMA. Search strategy Embase, Medline (Ovid), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ClinicalTrials.gov, LILACS and conference proceedings were searched. The placenta is an organ formed in the uterus of a pregnant woman. During pregnancy, the placenta becomes an extra endocrine organ and produces hormones that help maintain the pregnancy. The first.
Measurements of serum markers and Ut-A Doppler were performed between week 8 + 0 and 14 + 0 gestational age (GA). Low levels of PP13, PlGF, and PAPP-A and elevated level of Inhibin A have been found to be significantly associated with the development of PE later in pregnancy The proposed medication regime is infusion of IVIG 0.4 g/kg given at 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 weeks of pregnancy in women who agree to take part. IgA deficiency is an exclusion criterion. Primary outcome is the development of third-degree CHB. Enrolment is ongoing. The incidence of adverse effects with IVIG use ranges between 1% and 15% . The most. nd 2000. The risk of delivering a small for gestational age infant, delivering preterm, and stillbirth were related to maternal serum levels of PAPP-A and AFP. RESULTS: Women with a low PAPP-A were not more likely to have elevated levels of AFP. Compared with women with a normal PAPP-A and a normal AFP, the odds ratio for delivering a small for gestational age infant for women with a high AFP. The third stage of labor is associated with considerable maternal morbidity and mortality. The major complication is postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), which is the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Whereas in the event of PPH due to atony of the uterus there exist numerous treatment guidelines; for the management of retained placenta the general consensus is more. A total of 33,296 primiparous women had at least one procedure before pregnancy (8.7%; Table 2).Women with abnormally invasive placenta had higher rates of gynecologic laparoscopy, hysteroscopy, and curettage than those without ().No women with abnormally invasive placenta had a history of endometrial ablation, whereas 318 women (0.08%) without abnormally invasive placenta had undergone the.