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Rectus muscle abscess

An abscess from a perforation of the rectus sheath by a foreign body was highly suspected. The patient underwent an emergency surgery, and a 2-cm fish bone was found in the left rectus abdominis muscle with abscess formation (Fig. 4). An omental abscess with small bowel adhesions was also noted Orbital computed tomography (CT) scan showed a well-defined, hypo-dense, peripheral rim-enhancing lesion in relation to left superior rectus muscle suggestive of left superior rectus abscess. The abscess was drained through skin approach A case of tuberculous abscess in rectus abdominis muscle is described in a 20-year-old apparently healthy female with no past history of TB. The diagnosis was made by ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration and cytological examination which revealed caseating granuloma with central necrosis, lymphocytes, and giant cells, consistent with TB

Rectus sheath abscess caused by perforation of the small

Isolated abscess in superior rectus muscle in a child

  1. Psoas Muscle Abscess is a collection of pus in Psoas Muscle compartment. This is normally caused due to various types of bacteria which may have infiltrated the surrounding organs. 1 It may also develop due to infection spreading from a distant organ in the body
  2. al wall fat. It is seperate from rectus muscle. A thombosed adjacent vein is noted
  3. al wall masses and include desmoid tumors, sarcomas, endometriomas, and metastases. Multiple masses and other diffuse abdo
  4. The primary closure of a rectus sheath muscle abscess was performed on an 11-year-old child following evacuation of its contents under antimicrobial cover. Complete healing was achieved in eight days. This method avoids the delays in wound healing and morbidity associated with conventional drainage

The role of ocular muscle biopsy is probably limited to atypical cases or those unresponsive to therapy, particularly to exclude neoplasia. Haufschild et al. reported an idiopathic isolated abscess of superior rectus muscle in an 11-year-old girl. MRI showed an abscess with central cavitation and a rim of enhancement Summary A 57-year-old man presented with an abscess localised to the lateral rectus region. He was treated as a case of orbital cellulitis because of the presence of soft tissue swelling with a localised abscess discharging through the conjunctiva with associated reduction of visual acuity and restriction of ocular movements laterally

Tuberculous Abscess of the Anterior Abdominal Wall: An

  1. Psoas abscess is a rare infectious disease with nonspecific clinical presentation that frequently causes a diagnostic difficulty. Its insidious onset and occult characteristics can cause diagnostic delays. It is classified as primary or secondary. Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly causative pathogen in primary psoas abscess. Secondary psoas abscess usually occurs as a result of.
  2. rectus sheath. On T2-weighted images, the masses showed isointensity to muscle (Figs. 2A and 2B). The lesions were mildly hyper-intense to muscle on gradient-recalled echo fat-suppressed T1-weighted images (Fig. 2C) An abscess is a focal collection of pus (bacteria, WBCs, and necrotic tissue) that i
  3. is muscle - Between rectus abdo
  4. Rectus sheath abscess (RSA) is uncommon and is sporadically seen as a complication of rectus sheath hematoma (RSH). It has however not been reported before as a likely complication of intravenous drug abuse
  5. al pain. It is the result of bleeding into the rectus sheath from damage to the superior or inferior epigastric arteries or their branches or from a direct tear of the rectus muscle

Tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) is commonly used to treat stress urinary incontinence (SUI). TVT is known for its simplicity of use and successful outcomes with low morbidity [1]. However, complications can occur. We report an abscess posterior to the rectus muscle following TVT. A 46-year-old woman underwent TVT for SUI. On postoperative day (POD) 13, she presented with an abscess of the left. Rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) is an uncommon cause of an acute abdomen that can be a benign occurrence or quickly progress to a life-threatening event. It is important for the emergency physician to be knowledgeable about RSH because it can mimic many abdominal conditions Abdominal wound infection and abscess formation are common complications after cesarean delivery. We report a case with abscess formation inside the abdominal rectus muscle sheath after normal, spontaneous vaginal delivery. A 32-year-old woman, para 2, had a normal vaginal delivery at term. The second postpartum day she complained of lower. Skeletal muscle involvement occurs in two forms: Most commonly the tubercular abscess spreads into the muscle through extension from the neighboring structures like lymph nodes, bone, joint or tendon, etc. A tubercular abscess arising from a costochondral junction may track down, either lateral or medial to the linea semilunaris

We are frequently asked to review documentation to determine if the service performed was an aspiration or drainage procedure. Confusion seems to have grown with the revision of the CPT® drainage codes in 2014, so let's take a few minutes to review the guidance regarding reporting these codes and a few of the most common codes available for aspiration and drainage procedures. In the Summer. Psoas Abscess and Hematoma. Spontaneous dissection from a primary site in the retro-fascial space deep to the transversalis fascia into the ex-traperitoneal compartments is rare.3 The iliopsoas compartment is an extraperitoneal space covered by the iliopsoas fascia. The greater psoas muscle originates from the transverse processes of T12 and. Provisional diagnosis of superior rectus muscle abscess was made, and the patient was started on cefotaxime 500 mg 12 hourly and gentamicin 40 mg 8 hourly intravenously. On the 2 nd day, pus was drained through the skin approach. The swelling reduced on 2 nd postoperative day and the child was able to open his LE

Primary Cold Abscess of Rectus Abdominis Muscle. Author (s): Alawad AAM* and Gismalla MD. 10.4172/2376-0249.1000313. A 20-year-old female presented with a complaint of a progressive swelling in the left lower abdomen for the last three months. There was no history of preceding trauma, fever, cough, malaise or pain Rectus sheath hematoma/abscess is a potentially serious condition with significant morbidity and mortality. Most likely this patient had secondary infection of the rectus sheath hematoma leading to abscess formation. A hematoma within the rectus sheath occurs when the epigastric vessels or the rectus muscle are lacerated during trocar insertion diplopia and this was due to a lateral rectus muscle abscess. Complete resolution of the diplopia occurred by 6 weeks from starting treatment. The possible aetiologies and possible complications of such a condition are then . discussed. An idiopathic extraocular muscle abscess is a rare. The lesion involved the rectus sheath and rectus abominis muscle. There was significant thickening and inflammation of overlying skin & subcutaneous tissue. This case is of interest because tuberculous muscle abscess is a rare entity and only isolated cases are reported in the literature. The patient seems to have a primary tubercular.

Isolated extraocular muscle abscess presenting 40 years

T1, fs, Gd. Subtle rim-enhancing abscess (black arrow) in the right rectus abdominis muscle (orange arrow). Enhancement of the adjacent muscle tissue (yellow arrow). Enlarged inguinal lymph nodes (small white arrows). AZ Sint-Maarten Mechelen, Department of Radiology tubercular abscess arising from a costochondral junction may track downward, either lateral or medial to the linea semilunaris. If it extends lateral to the rectus, it spreads downward between the internal oblique and transverse abdominis muscles, but if it extends medial to the linea semilunaris, it may spread into the rectus sheath and ma Psoas Muscle Abscess has been classified into two categories which are primary and secondary. 2 The type of Psoas Muscle Abscess depends on the presence or absence of an underlying disease. Primary Psoas Muscle Abscess: This type of Psoas Muscle Abscess occurs due to spread of an infectious process from a known source in the body. Psoas Muscle Abscess is seen mostly in people who have diabetes.

301769001 - Rectus sheath abscess - SNOMED C

It should not be forgotten that among potential complications of IM injection are abscess, cellulites, tissue necrosis, granuloma, muscle fibrosis, contractures, haematoma and injury to blood vessels, bones and peripheral nerves. 2 Although IM injection is a commonplace nursing practice, there is a dearth of guidelines for nursing staff in this. We describe here a rectus sheath abscess which occurred three weeks after the laparoscopic appendicectomy. It was most likely the result of secondary infection of the rectus sheath hematoma due to bleeding into the rectus sheath from damage to the inferior epigastric arteries or a direct tear of the rectus muscle Spontaneous retroperitoneal hematoma (SRH) is defined as bleeding into the retroperitoneal space without trauma or iatrogenic manipulation [ 1 ]. Rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) results from accumulation of blood within the rectus sheath. Both conditions are rare but may mimic a number of acute intra-abdominal pathologies, warranting heightened. A cramp in the hip, commonly in the, rectus femoris, is referred to as a Charley horse. Gait disturbances are caused by quadriceps paralysis the failure to stretch the leg despite resistance. The psoas abscess can spread to the thigh, causing severe pain. When it comes to the hip, thigh, or knee, it's important to think about it

Rectus sheath hematoma Radiology Reference Article

  1. Introduction. A psoas abscess is a collection of pus in the psoas muscle compartment. 1 It was initially reported by Mynter in 1881 as psoitis and remains a rarely reported condition. It may be caused by hematogenous or lymphatic seeding from a distant site (primary psoas abscess) or by the direct spread of infection to the psoas muscle from an adjacent structure (secondary psoas abscess)
  2. utes. The patient made good recovery after the procedure, with prior appendiceal abscess drainage. DISCUSSION The psoas muscle is a retroperitoneal organ originating a
  3. is muscle is described in a 20- year- old female in an apparently healthy individual without any past history of tuberculosis
  4. The rectus sheath abscess was opened by a long left paramedian incision. The rectus muscle and the inferior epigastric vessels were found macerated; 300ml of offensive smelling pus was evacuated. There was a deep abscess cavity extending behind the pubis symphysis but not communicating with the peritoneal cavity. The necrotic bits of rectus.
  5. al wall with peripheral contrast-enhancing, next to a calcified foreign body between the rectus muscle sheaths (Fig. 1, arrow). Wound exploration under general anaesthesia was performed with drainage of the cavity, extraction of the foreign body and closure of the.
  6. ation revealed leukocytosis (TLC-15,600/cumm) and random blood sugar was 76 mg/dl. H

A-B.Axial (A) and coronal (B) CT unenhanced scan through the middle orbit. The images show: increased thickness of skin and soft tissue overlying the medio-lateral area of the left orbit, decreased transparency of the ipsilateral intraconal and extraconal fat tissue and a subperiosteal abscess along the medial wall of the left orbit (white arrows), adjacent to the opacified ethmoid air cells. A case of pubic abscess after prostate cancer surgery and radiotherapy treated with rectus femoris muscle flap Previous Article Sequential chimeric free deep circumflex iliac artery bone flap and superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator flap from the same site for one-stage reconstructions of severe hand injury: A report of two case Subsequent imaging revealed abscess of the superior rectus muscle. The child improved following intravenous antibiotics and ultrasonography guided aspiration of the abscess. The clinical and radiological presentation of such cases, management and outcome and a brief review of literature are discussed

The Abdominal Wall Lumps and Bumps: Cross-Sectional

Orbital Diseases (lecture 3) at University of Florida

One might consider further mobilization of the omentoplasty or a rectus abdominis muscle (RAM) flap, but this would again require an abdominal approach . The anterior route might not be attractive due to disturbances of the abdominal wall, extensive intra-abdominal adhesions, scarring at the pelvic inlet, and the presence of a stoma CT showed peridiverticular abscess formation sprawling into the rectus abdominis muscle and subcutanous planes. With these imaging findings in hand, we considered a colocutaneous fistula triggered by percutaneous drainage of an abscess originated perforated diverticular disease Because of the dense fascia investing the rectus muscles, a rectus sheath hematoma, which may occur after muscle injury in a patient with coagulopathy, develops within a tight, nonelastic space and can become remarkably firm. A collection of pus between the diaphragm and the liver is known as a subphrenic abscess and may be secondary to the. Chronic encapsulated mediastinal abscess is an unusual complication of previous open heart surgery. We report on the case of a 79 year old male who presented with epigastric fistulization of an encapsulated anterior mediastinal abscess 12 years after a redo aortic valve replacement for prosthetic valve endocarditis. The encapsulated abscess and its complex branching tracts and the cutaneous. Fig. 6.1 Anterior abdominal wall musculature and fascia Fig. 6.2 Abdominal wall anatomy at the abdominal midline. The linea alba is noted by the arrow Fig. 6.3 Linea semilunaris. The linea semilunaris along the lateral margin of the inferior rectus muscle is where a Spigelian hernia is expected to occur Table 6.1 Ultrasonographic appearance o

The sclera and the muscle sus- Tenon's abscess resistant to fourth-generation fluoroquinolones pension sutures were exposed. In the sub-Tenon's space, that resolved completely after surgical drainage and irrigation there was an accumulation of a copious amount of thick jel- with povidone iodine followed by administration of oral amoxicillin. M65.021 Abscess of tendon sheath, right upper arm. M65.022 Abscess of tendon sheath, left upper arm. M65.029 Abscess of tendon sheath, unspecified upper arm. M65.03 Abscess of tendon sheath, forearm. Reimbursement claims with a date of service on or after October 1, 2015 require the use of ICD-10-CM codes Interventions: The rectus abdominis muscle flap can be used as a flap for pelvic reconstruction, providing a large volume of soft tissue that can be used in the treatment of many comorbid conditions, including genital fistulas, postradiation pelvic exenteration, and abdominoperineal resection defects

The Inaccessible or Undrainable Abscess: How to Drain I

Ultrasound examination over the area of tenderness reveals a heterogeneous area in the rectus abdominal muscle - Rectus sheath haematoma The rectus sheath haematoma is the area of mixed echogenicity in the rectus muscle Read more about Rectus sheath haematoma [] Posted in Abcesses / Nodes / Haematomas Leave a commen Cutaneous abscess of abdominal wall. L02.211 is a billable/specific ICD-10-CM code that can be used to indicate a diagnosis for reimbursement purposes. The 2021 edition of ICD-10-CM L02.211 became effective on October 1, 2020. This is the American ICD-10-CM version of L02.211 - other international versions of ICD-10 L02.211 may differ A. pyramidalis muscle B. psoas muscle c. rectus abdominis d. external oblique. psoas muscle. diaphragm a . The right dome of the diaphragm is slightly higher than the left. b. The diaphragmatic apertures allow the esopha- gus, blood vessels, and nerves to pass between the chest and abdomen. c Extirpation of the four rectus muscles, removal of underlying inflammatory granulation, and abscess drainage were performed, and the wound was then soaked with betadine and antibiotic solution. The wound recovered well, and a month after abscess excision, dermo-fat tissue harvested from the inguinal area was grafted to orbital defect site The defect in the rectus sheath is closed over suction drainage and the skin flap is sutured to the perineal skin over suction drainage with the muscle filling the dead space above (Fig. 4) [16]. Undoubtedly this technique may compromise the strength of the abdominal incision and may compromise management of stoma complications or recurrent.

Diagnostic Medical Sonography 60d > Austin > Flashcards

What is Psoas Muscle Abscess & How is it Treated

After confirming the presence of the rectus abdominis muscle, the incision is extended the entire length of the anterior rectus sheath (Fig. 1a). The anterior rectus sheath is then dissected from the lateral to medial face, freeing it from the rectus abdominis muscles (Fig. 1a). It is then reflected medially and approximated with interrupted. Each rectus muscle diverges and becomes wider as it proceeds anteriorly, forming a muscular cone that encloses the optic nerve and posterior portion of the eyeball, and inserts into the sclera (fibrous coat of the eyeball) about 6mm posterior to the margin of the cornea abscess, or trauma ♣ pathologic lesions in the cavernous sinus. Rectus sheath hematomas result from bleeding inside the vascular rectus muscle layer of the abdominal wall. This activity reviews the evaluation and management of rectus sheath hematomas and emphasizes the role of the interprofessional care team in recognizing and managing this condition. Draining of abscess becomes mandatory when it. Psoas Abscess The psoas fascia covers the anterior surface of the psoas muscle and can influence the direction taken by a tuber-culous abscess. Tuberculous disease of the thoracolumbar region of the vertebral column results in the destruction of the vertebral bodies, with possible extension of pus laterally under the psoas fascia (CD Fig. 13-3) The patient was diagnosed to have tuberculous abscess of the anterior abdominal wall and antituberculosis treatment was started. After four weeks' antituberculous treatment, she responded well to the treatment and the abscess regressed considerably. Primary Cold Abscess of Rectus Abdominis Muscle Created Date: 5/30/2015 3:50:54 PM.

Anterior abdominal wall abscess Radiology Case

Purulent musculoskeletal complications of CD have been described. 1, - 5 In a study of 552 patients with CD who underwent computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis at a tertiary referral center, 23 patients (4%) had purulent musculoskeletal complications of CD. 1 These included rectus muscle abscess in 6, psoas muscle abscess in 6. The right rectus muscle was usually chosen to allow for colostomy through the left rectus muscle. The RAM flap was designed over the rectus abdominis muscle, including the overlying fat and skin. In the post-2004 group of patients, we increased the volume of the flap by retrieving the fat and muscle from a wider area The mass was well defined, and could be differentiated from the surrounding rectus abdominis muscle. Dimensions were approximately 2.27 × 1.23 × 3.41 centimetres (Figs. B, C). Due to the sonographic features and clinical history, the diagnosis of endometrioma of the rectus abdominis muscle was suggested Rectus Femoris Strain Treatment & Rehabilitation. The treatment and rehabilitation of rectus femoris strains closely resemble that of many other muscles strains and injuries. Some of the more common methods of treatment are: The RICE Method. If you've ever pulled a muscle, you are probably familiar with the RICE method of treating the injury

Radiology Cases: Rectus Femoris Partial Tear and Sub

Imaging of Abdominal Wall Masses, Masslike Lesions, and

On the contrast-enhanced coronal image of the orbits through the midposterior globe, the extent of the subperiosteal fluid collection, with enhancing rim, is better appreciated, as is its relationship to the lamina papyracea and the laterally deviated, slightly thickened medial rectus muscle Acute appendicitis with perforation and subsequent abscess formation. Perforation found in 13-20% of patients who present with acute appendicitis (leads to abscess formation or diffuse peritonitis) One study showed that 20% of patients develop perforation <24 hrs after symptom onset, 65% of patients have had symptoms >48 hr A. Rectus surgery: limbal for older patients (over 40 to 45 years old) as the conjunctiva is friable. B. Rectus surgery: fornix or limbal for patients under 40 years old. C. Use fornix for inferior and superior oblique surgery. A swan incision is the incision over the muscle insertion. This gives good exposure but can leave a conjunctival scar

When he exposes the abscess or hematoma in the deep subcutaneous, fascia, or muscle layers he then incises into the abscess or hematoma and drains it completely. Based on this description and the details in our example with the abscess being drained in the muscle, CPT 23930 fits and is the correct CPT code for this case Uniquely, if an epidural abscess is present near the petrous bone, Gradenigo syndrome may be present with unilateral facial pain, weakness of the lateral rectus muscle, and palsy of cranial nerves V and VI

Primary closure following drainage of a rectus sheath

A. Direct branches of the Aorta supply the lateral anterior abdominal wall. B. Multiple branches of the Subclavian Artery supply the anterior abdominal wall. C. Branches of the Internal Iliac Artery supply the anterior abdominal wall inferior to the arcuate line. D. Inferior Epigastric Arteries are found superficial to the rectus abdominus muscle An abdominal CT revealed a subcutaneous masse of 2.1 × 1.7 cm in the left iliac fossa and another mass involving the rectus muscle and fascia without traversing the peritoneum . Elective surgery was performed. During surgery, the two masses were observed, the excision was performed including a 10-mm safety area of each them Pyomyositis, psoas abscess, S. aereus myositis, group A and group B streptococcal myositis, Clostridial gas gangrene, an MRI of the rectus muscle can be seen. Figure 5. MRI of Group B_streptococcal myositis in right rectus muscle identified with the arrow. . Since the patient was a type II diabetic, he was more prone to infection rectus sheath: [TA] sheath of the rectus abdominis, formed by the aponeuroses of the three anterolateral muscles of the abdominal wall that split to enclose the rectus and fuse medially to form the linea alba; it consists of an anterior lamina and a posterior lamina, the latter being absent below the arcuate line. See also: aponeurosis of. Operative findings revealed left tubo-ovarian abscess size 4 × 5 cm adhered to left pelvic wall with pus loculated between left rectus sheath and muscle amount of 20 ml. Fig. 1 Transvaginal ultrasonography demonstrating a large left tubo-ovarian abscess size 9.4 × 4.8 cm located at anterior of the uteru

Isolated abscess in superior rectus muscle in a child

Instead, the lateral rectus attachment to the globe is left intact to provide ciliary artery blood flow to the anterior segment and a surgical transposition of the vertical rectus extraocular muscles is performed to create abducting force (Figure 10). Figure 10. Lateral view of the lateral rectus (LR), superior rectus (SR), and inferior rectus. Retroperitoneal Abscess and Psoas Muscle Abscess. The retroperitoneal space is the area outside the peritoneum at the back of the abdominal cavity. A retroperitoneal abscess is a collection of pus in this retroperitoneal space. It can develop due to spread of an infection from adjacent organs or an infection of the blood as is seen with other. a-c Ultrasound and CT images for a case of rectus sheath hematoma. a An ultrasound image showing anechoic (cyst-like) lesion implicating the left rectus abdominus muscle (between the white arrows). b An ultrasound image for the same patient at a lower level showing internal septations with layering low-level internal echoes, and possible. 23030 Incision and drainage, shoulder area; deep abscess or hematoma 23031 Incision and drainage, shoulder area; infected bursa 23035 Incision, bone cortex (eg, osteomyelitis or bone abscess), shoulder area 23040 Arthrotomy, glenohumeral joint, including exploration, drainage, or removal of foreign bod abdominus hematoma icd-10 rectus sheath Z. zmashchak Networker. Messages 30 Location Ooltewah, TN Best answers 0. Jan 26, 2016 #1 Does anyone know the ICD-10 code for a rectus abdominus sheath hematoma? I need help with coding this diagnosis. C. CodingKing True Blue. Messages 3,952 Best answers 1. Jan 26, 2016.

53C C+P Pt II - Diagnostic Medical Sonography 60d with

Local muscle flaps, represented by the rectus abdominal muscle flap are the optimal choice for an abdominal wall defect. 10 However, orthopedic surgeons are not familiar with their use. In our case, we chose the rectus femoris muscle flap, which has advantages in muscle volume and versatility of transposition due to the long vascular pedicle Surgery on the medial rectus muscle is the most likely to induce the oculocardiac reflex, and it is more common in children than adults. For an abscess, immediate incision and drainage may be warranted. Possible predisposing factors include age under 18 years, developmental delay, eye rubbing, sinus infection,.

Levator Ani Syndrome - Pelvic Pain

An Easily Overlooked Presentation of Malignant Psoas

The vertical muscle-splitting incision is made in much the same way as the traditional paramedian incision except that the rectus muscle is split, rather than retracted laterally. This wound can be opened and closed quickly and is of particular value in reopening a previous paramedian incision where dissection of the rectus muscle away from the. 92. Best answers. 0. Sep 25, 2009. #4. The reason for the exam was for a psoas MUSCLE abscess which would be coded as 75989 & 20000. The report does not state that the cath was placed within the retropertioneal cavity nor does it support a retroperitoneal infection so I disagree with coding 75989 & 49061. D

Anatomy - Pelvic Pain

Rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) is an uncommon clinical condition whereby blood accumulates in the rectus abdominus muscle sheath as a result of damaged muscle fibres or torn epigastric vessels [1]. This is typically due to blunt abdominal trauma, or overly forceful muscle contraction, but can occur spontaneously particularly if patients are on. Keywords: pyomyositis, rectus femoris muscle, septic arthritis ÖZ Kalça eklemi kaslarını etkileyen piyomiyositis, nadir görülen septik artrit ile ben-zer klinik özellikler göstermektedir. Bu yazımızda septik artrit bulguları ile gelen magnetik rezonans görüntüleme ile rectus femoris piyomositis tanısı konulan 3 This muscle (commonly referred to as the six-pack) is separated into a left and a right portion by a layer of thick cartilage called the linea alba. In diastasis recti, the increasing size of a woman's uterus and stomach cause a portion of the linea alba to stretch and the two sections of the rectus abdominis muscle to separate from each other This paper describes a rectus abdominis muscle flap which avoids these problems. Case report A 64-year-old man with conservatively managed ulcerative colitis for 12 years underwent a proctocolectomy and ileostomy. The perineal wound required re-exploration for abscess formation. Repeated curettage and irrigation failed to cure the sinus (a) CT exam: multiloculated hepatic liver abscess, right lobe, segment VIII, 50/32/57 mm; (b) CT Exam: Right eye endophthalmitis, eyeball with irregular contour, with a hypodense area in the internal side (at the area of the insertion of the medial rectus muscle), with possible communication between posterior chamber and periorbital space. abscess cavity from the mid aorta to the exit point in the left rectus. No other muscle flap, with the possible excep-tion of a rectus abdominis flap, would have achieved this and the rectus flap wouldn't have been substantial enough. Secondly, since the sternum was healthy and was sought to be closed primarily and since it was the retros